Metal extrusion can be simply understood as a process in which a long object with a fixed profile is manufactured by pushing a billet into a closed cavity and extruding it through a metal extrusion die. Extrusion is a plastic processing method in metal forming in which a hydraulic device pushes metal or workpieces into a die to reduce their cross-section or transform them into a desired shape. It is commonly used to manufacture parts made of steel, aluminum, copper, magnesium, and lead, among other materials.
Today we will learn about the working principle, types, products and applications, and advantages of the metal extrusion manufacturing process. It is now widely used in the manufacture of various applications, especially in the field of aluminum window and door fabrication.
What is metal extrusion?
The metal extrusion process was invented by Joseph Bramah in 1797. Using a manual plunger, he formed metal tubes by pushing soft metal through a die.
The same man also developed the first hydraulic press for Thomas Burr in 1820. This hydraulic press formed the first lead pipe that led the revolution in the metal forming industry.
Metal extrusion is a metal forming process that creates long dimensional and fixed cross-section parts by pushing a metal blank through a die with the desired cross-section. Steel, aluminum, copper, magnesium, and lead are commonly used in metal extrusion. The principle of metal extrusion is that the metal blank is placed into the die cavity of the plastic-forming equipment. Under certain pressure and speed, the metal blank is forced to produce plastic flow and extrude from a specific die hole in the cavity, thus obtaining the desired cross-sectional shape and size and having certain mechanical properties of the process technology of the pressed parts.
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Types of manufacturing processes for metal extrusion
Metal extrusion process types are usually divided according to the extrusion flow direction, extrusion pressure application method, and working temperature polarity and generally can be divided into the following types.
1. According to the extrusion temperature
(2) Cold extrusion
2. According to the extrusion direction
(3) lateral extrusion
(5) Impact extrusion
A detailed explanation of the various types of extrusion processes introduced above
If the extrusion process occurs above the recrystallization temperature, about 50-60% of its melting temperature, it is called hot extrusion.
If the extrusion process occurs below the crystallization or room temperature, the process is called cold extrusion. Aluminum cans, cylinders, collapsible tubes, etc., are examples of this process.
In this type of extrusion process, the metal is forced to flow in the direction of the feed of the punch. The punch moves toward the die during the extrusion process. The process requires more force because of the high friction between the blank and the container.
In this process, the metal flows in the direction opposite to the plunger movement. The die is mounted on the other side of the plunger movement. The metal can flow through the annular space between the punch and the container in this process.
In transverse extrusion, the die opening is located on the side of the container. As the punch is pressed down on the blank, the extrudate comes out of the side of the container. There may be multiple die openings. In transverse extrusion, the metal flow is perpendicular to the stamping direction.
The hydrostatic extrusion process uses fluid to apply pressure to a billet. In this process, the billet is not in contact with the cylinder wall or the plunger, so friction is eliminated. There is fluid between the billet and the plunger. The plunger applies force to the fluid further applied to the billet. Usually, vegetable oil is used as the fluid. This process is accomplished through leakage problems and uncontrolled extrusion speeds.
The first step in the impact extrusion process is to place the metal billet into the die. The punch is pressed against the nugget with high force or pressure. This pressure causes the material to flow to the side of the die. Finally, the stripper plate removes the finished part from the punch.
Advantages of metal extrusion
The advantages of metal extrusion technology are mainly the following:
1. High efficiency: large quantities can be processed in a short time with high production efficiency
2. Stable accuracy and quality: it is possible to manufacture parts with high precision requirements and stable part quality.
3. Low cost: it can be mass-produced. And the mold, as well as the production process, is relatively simple, which can save the cost of parts.
4. High material utilization rate: Due to the process principle’s characteristics, the production process’s material utilization rate can reach more than 90%, with less material waste.
5. High extrusion ratio (the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the billet to the cross-sectional area of the extruded part) and the ability to easily create complex cross-sections.
6. Metal extrusion can be done with brittle and ductile materials, and parts with high mechanical properties can be obtained by cold extrusion.
Products and Applications of Metal Extrusion
Extrusion can produce not only bars, tubes, profiles, and linear workpieces with simple cross-sectional shapes but also profiles and tubes with complex cross-sectional shapes. Products manufactured using this process are used in various industries, such as construction, manufacturing, retail, information technology, etc. Metal extrusion technology is used in a wide range of applications, mainly in the following areas:
1. Aviation field: manufacturing engine blades, turbine disks, and other aviation parts of various shapes.
2. Automotive field: manufacture of automotive engines, transmissions, and other metal parts.
3. Mechanical field: manufacturing shafts, gears, flanges, connecting structural parts of assembly lines, and other mechanical parts.
4. Electronic field: manufacturing radiator, chassis, PCB motherboard heat dissipation, and other electronic parts.
5. Architectural doors and windows: manufacture aluminum square passages, broken bridge profiles, curtain wall profiles, etc.
Metal Extrusion Company
Elimold has development and production capacity from mold design, processing, and manufacturing to assembly sets, etc. Our company produces various machined, stamping, extruded, drawn, and welded parts. Our customers are in various industries: aviation, military, machinery, automotive, home appliances, electromechanical, shipbuilding, construction, chemical, agriculture, forestry, etc. So far, our company has been identified by more than 30 foreign-funded enterprises as the designated manufacturer of parts and components and exported to the United States, Germany, Britain, Japan, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, Singapore, and other countries.
This article explains the metal extrusion process and its principle, the various types of metal extrusion processes and its explanation, and the advantages of metal extrusion technology. This article will allow you to quickly understand the information related to metal extrusion and avoid looking for a metal extrusion manufacturer to work with doubts. If you need metal extrusion services, why not contact us directly in the devolved form?