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What is HP Multijet Fusion (MJF) 3D Printing?

Introduction: 3D printing technology has brought revolutionary changes to the manufacturing industry. 3D printing technology such as Multijet Fusion (MJF) 3D printing has made great strides, and its emergence has completely changed the manufacturing industry. Multijet Fusion (MJF) is one of the newest additive manufacturing (AM) technologies on the market and has great potential. Hewlett-Packard (HP) developed MJF 3D printing in 2016. It is a type of binder jetting 3D printing technology that is faster, cheaper, and can produce more functional parts. However, it is also a technology that has yet to reach its full potential.

There are several different types of 3D printers available today. The MJF printer is a type of mass production 3D printer and is a powder bed fusion printer. This type of 3D printing allows users to create complex three-dimensional models quickly and accurately.

HP MJF technology stands out for its high resolution, fast printing speed, and wide range of applications. This article examines the basic principles, key features, and application areas of HP MJF technology to provide engineers, designers, and manufacturers with a comprehensive understanding of this exciting manufacturing technology. From material selection to post-processing steps, from economics to design feasibility, we will discuss each aspect of HP MJF technology to help you better apply this technology to your projects and create more innovation and opportunity. The future of HP MJF technology is promising, and we will investigate the potential and opportunities it presents.


HP Multijet Fusion (MJF) 3D printing technology is an advanced additive manufacturing method that quickly produces detailed, intricate parts from powdered thermoplastics. It creates three-dimensional objects mainly by layering materials.

MJF 3D printing is rapidly becoming the go-to solution for additive manufacturing (AM) in industrial applications due to its ability to produce parts with high tensile strength, fine feature resolution, and precise mechanical properties quickly and consistently. It is frequently used to create functional prototypes, end-use parts, parts with consistent isotropic mechanical properties, as well as organic and complex geometries.

This document introduces the basic principles, key characteristics, and application areas of HP MJF technology for better comprehension of this innovative manufacturing technology.

Basic working principle of MJF 3D printer

 The HP MJF (Multijet Fusion) 3D printing process selectively applies fusing and detailing agents to a bed of nylon powder, heating it to create thousands of solid, functional layers. This enables the speedy production of precise and detailed parts using thermoplastic powders.The primary process involves using an inkjet array to deposit the fusing agent and refiner on the powder material bed via a nozzle that sprays thermoplastic powder material. The sprayed materials are fused into a solid layer, with subsequent layers added to the powder bed. Metrics and units conform to American English standards.Subsequently, a heat source melts the sprayed powder materials to create a new material layer.The powder bed is then lowered, and the process is repeated to create a complete three-dimensional object.After printing, the build unit holds the printed part and remaining powder.You can cool and unpack parts, and recycle excess powder for later use at a separate processing station attached to the removable build unit.Bead blasting removes any remaining powder and enables you to continue with additional beauty steps.This method, which produces stronger parts without adding extra weight, is much faster than other types of 3D printing.It is more accurate than other 3D printing methods, which makes it optimal for constructing intricate components such as precise tools or fragile models.

materials used

HP PA12 (nylon)is the primary material for Multi Jet Fusion printers. Generally, materials used by MJF can be split into hard and soft plastics.

Some rigid plastics are Nylon PA11, Nylon PA12, and PP, while flexible plastics include Estane 3D TPU M95A. These materials possess exceptional mechanical properties, heat resistance, and chemical stability for water dyeing, making them ideal for different applications.

 Water-resistant parts produced using HP PA12 have a base tolerance of +/- 0.3 mm. Other material options include PA11 (more suitable for flexible parts) and an HP High Reusability PP (polypropylene) material produced by German chemical company BASF.HP MJF technology also continues to broaden its range of materials, which currently includes glass-filled materials, ceramics, and more.Expanding the application fields of HP MJF technology, the new materials now offered meet the needs in diverse industries and projects.HP MJF technology provides a range of material options suitable for various applications, including mechanical parts, medical devices, and consumer product designs.This versatility enables HP MJF technology to address manufacturing challenges and innovation needs across different sectors.

Resolution and Accuracy

HP MJF technology delivers high levels of resolution and accuracy, enabling fine detail and precise dimensional control of parts. Excellent resolution and accuracy means you can build complex geometries and details with extreme precision. As a result, HP MJF technology has advantages in prototyping with custom and functional parts. Below are some commonly used HP MJF machine types and their resolution and accuracy data:

1. HP Jet Fusion 4200

Horizontal resolution: 1200 x 1200 dpi

Vertical resolution: 1200 dpi

Minimum feature size: approximately 0.08 mm

The HP Jet Fusion 4200 is an industrial-grade 3D printer known for its high resolution and precision, suitable for projects that require fine structures and high surface quality. The capabilities of this machine make it ideal for producing precision parts, prototypes and models.

2. HP Jet Fusion 5200

Horizontal resolution: 1200 x 1200 dpi

Vertical resolution: 1200 dpi

Minimum feature size: approximately 0.08 mm

The HP Jet Fusion 5200 is a higher-productivity 3D printer with excellent resolution and accuracy. It is suitable for high-volume production projects that require high-quality parts.

3. HP Jet Fusion 3D 4210

Horizontal resolution: 1200 x 1200 dpi

Vertical resolution: 1200 dpi

Minimum feature size: approximately 0.08 mm

The HP Jet Fusion 3D 4210 is another high-performance 3D printer with similar resolution and accuracy to the previous model. It is suitable for various applications, including aerospace, medical, and automotive manufacturing.

Speed and productivity

Compared to some other 3D printing technologies, HP MJF offers faster print speeds. High speed and productivity means that parts can be produced quickly, helping to shorten project delivery times and increase manufacturing efficiency. This is important for projects that have tight deadlines, large production runs, or projects that require rapid design verification. Below are the machines commonly used by manufacturers and related data information.

1. HP Jet Fusion 4200

Print speed: Approximately 4500 cubic centimeters per hour

Build platform dimensions: 380 x 284 x 380 mm (15 x 11.2 x 15 inches)

Known for its exceptional speed, the HP Jet Fusion 4200 can print at approximately 4500 cubic centimeters per hour. This machine is well suited for projects that require high productivity, such as batch production of functional parts.

2. HP Jet Fusion 5200

Print speed: Approximately 5000 cubic centimeters per hour

Build platform dimensions: 380 x 284 x 380 mm (15 x 11.2 x 15 inches)

The HP Jet Fusion 5200 is a high-throughput 3D printer that can print approximately 5,000 cubic centimeters per hour. This makes it ideal for large-scale production projects where production efficiency is critical.

3. HP Jet Fusion 3D 4210

Print speed: Approximately 5500 cubic centimeters per hour

Build platform dimensions: 380 x 284 x 380 mm (15 x 11.2 x 15 inches)

The HP Jet Fusion 3D 4210 also excels in speed and productivity, printing at approximately 5500 cubic centimeters per hour. This machine is suitable for projects ranging from high-volume production to prototyping.


HP MJF printing involves post-processing steps like support structure removal, surface treatment, and coloring to enhance part quality and appearance. As with other manufacturing processes, post-processing is essential before the part becomes ideal for prototyping or end-use applications. However, the post-processing of MJF is less demanding compared to other additive manufacturing technologies.

After finishing a print job, the build cell will contain a bed of unmelted powder with the parts embedded in it.  To prepare the parts for use, you may need to perform additional post-processing, depending on their intended purpose. For instance, if the parts were created for casting, more machining will likely be necessary to refine mating surfaces, holes, tolerances, and other features that go beyond the capabilities of MJF and internal threads. In addition, you may need to manually grind parts to meet particular technical requirements.

Cost HP MJF pricing is influenced by material, equipment, and post-processing expenses. While the materials may be relatively costly, the high efficiency of HP MJF makes it a cost-effective option for large-scale projects. However, a project-level cost analysis is necessary to determine the overall cost-effectiveness of the manufacturing process. This aids manufacturers in making informed decisions, such as optimizing production processes, developing pricing strategies, and selecting the most cost-effective processes and materials.

Cost Structure Elements

– Material Cost: Material cost is a significant factor in HP MJF technology. This comprises the cost of printing materials, commonly calculated per kilogram (kg) or per liter (L). The cost can be determined by using this formula: Material cost = Price of printing material (per unit weight) x Quantity of material required for printing.

Equipment cost: Unchanged. The cost of equipment for the 3D printer includes its purchase price, as well as expenses related to operation and maintenance. Additionally, equipment depreciation costs are typically included in the cost of each part. The formula for determining equipment cost is as follows: Equipment cost = Printer purchase price / Estimated lifetime + Operation and maintenance expenses.

 Labor costs encompass wages for operators and reprocessing technicians. Typically, you can calculate labor costs using this formula: Labor Cost = Operator Salary + Reprocessing Technician Salary.

Post-processing costs involve support structure removal, surface treatment, staining, painting, and other steps. When calculating reprocessing costs, remember to include labor, chemical, and equipment expenses. Reprocessing costs consist of labor costs, chemical costs, and equipment costs.

To determine the total cost of a project or service, add the material cost, equipment cost, labor cost, and post-processing cost.

Use specific values to calculate the cost of each part by applying this formula. These estimations are subject to change due to factors like equipment lifespan, hourly wages, and chemical costs. To guarantee accuracy, it is crucial to consistently review and update your cost analysis.

Application field

MJF 3D printed parts are commonly utilized for their strength and moderate temperature resistance. HP MJF technology is employed in the medical sector to produce customized medical implants like bone scaffolds and dentures. In aerospace, it is used to manufacture lightweight components to enhance aircraft fuel efficiency. HP MJF technology also reduces manufacturing costs and enhances performance by producing intricate parts for automotive manufacturing.

It is evident that HP Multijet Fusion (MJF) 3D printing has gained considerable success in various industries and applications. It is extensively utilized in aerospace, medical, automotive manufacturing, and consumer product design.

The diverse application fields of HP MJF technology emphasize its potential and demonstrate that it can introduce innovation and advantages to the manufacturing industry.

Although HP Multijet Fusion (MJF) 3D printing technology provides significant advantages, certain limitations must be considered. To ensure design feasibility when utilizing HP MJF technology, consider factors such as minimum wall thickness, necessary support structures, and allowable build size. Removal of support structures could potentially impact surface quality.

The primary disadvantage of HP MJF printing technology is the requirement that all parts must be on the same level of the build platform during printing. If a part needs to include a suspension structure or multiple components, it will necessitate multiple prints and subsequent assembly. For instance, in the aerospace industry, printing a structurally complex component of an aircraft engine might require breaking it down into several smaller parts for printing and subsequent assembly. This increases the complexity of both manufacturing and post-processing, potentially impacting the feasibility of HP MJF technology for certain applications. Thus, limitations imposed by design and construction requirements may affect the viability of this technology.

Additionally, various software tools are available to aid in these processes.

HP MJF technology is compatible with a variety of 3D modeling and slicing software, including Fusion 360, SolidWorks, and Materialize Magics.

Final Summary

HP Multijet Fusion (MJF) 3D printing technology is a captivating manufacturing option that amalgamates high resolution, speed, multiple material options, and many applications. In several sectors, ranging from medical to aerospace and the automobile industry, the MJF technology has exhibited outstanding performance and potential. However, like any technology, there are limitations to HP MJF technology, including minimum wall thickness requirements, support structure requirements, and build size limitations. These limitations must be carefully considered during project planning and design. Nonetheless, HP MJF technology continues to evolve and improve, offering innovation and benefits to the manufacturing industry. It is expected that HP Multijet Fusion (MJF) 3D printing technology will continue to expand its application areas, overcome current limitations, and achieve success in a wider range of applications.

This document is intended to provide engineers and designers with a fundamental understanding of the technology, allowing for more effective application in their projects and manufacturing processes. The ongoing progress of HP MJF technology will yield more chances for ingenuity and manufacturing, unlocking novel possibilities for the manufacturing sector.

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